-->
النجباء النجباء
random

آخر المواضيع

random
recent
جاري التحميل ...
recent

Small Business Management










Small Business Management


 Ashraf Nseem


-------------------------------------------------------------------



Introduction
Growing interest in the subject of the recent Small Business Administration, so that it became the core issues that trains in colleges and universities today. And despite the fact that small enterprises have been since time immemorial of the essential elements of the national economy, as all large projects today had its beginnings initial small projects, though small projects that exist today, it will become many of which are large-scale projects in the future, in addition to that small projects collectively constitute a significant economic force, contributing a large part of the gross national product, they also play a key role in the development of the national economy as well as the obvious social impacts.
This must be cautious and prudent when you think about the start of the project of a small, whatever the nature of his work, so that a large proportion of small projects do not succeed and continue to work, and die in the beginnings of life, and because of that the process of preparation and planning of the project are not integrated, this to Besides the necessity of taking into consideration the work of small businesses is not an easy thing as discretion for many people, but it requires special specifications, including specifications of certain personal must be characterized by the owner of the project, as it requires perseverance and struggle to work, and sacrifice many of Interests other personal in his daily life.
In this simple Topic to identify the concept of small projects, and how to manage them, I hope to gain the proper appreciation.
Small Business
Small businesses are normally privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships. What constitutes "small" in terms of government support and tax policy varies depending on the country and industry. Small businesses can also be classified according to other methods such as sales, assets, or net profits.
Small businesses are common in many countries, depending on the economic system in operation. Typical examples include: convenience stores, other small shops (such as a bakery or delicatessen), hairdressers, tradesmen, lawyers, accountants, restaurants, guest houses, photographers, small-scale manufacturing, and online businesses, such as web design and programming, etc.
A primary trait of small businesses often used as a promotional benefit is their participation in local communities. Small companies often reside in a single city, state or local region and become a familiar presence in that area. Because they are based in a local community, employee local citizens and pay taxes in local markets, small companies often attract a number of loyal customers who prefer to support local companies versus large chains.
Small business owners enter the profession from all walks of life. If you look at those small businesses, however, that surpass the break-even point, or the point at which they begin to make a profit, you can find common characteristics in the entrepreneurs who started them. A small business owner is someone who is not afraid to test an idea, even with the potential for failure and losing her initial investment in the idea.
Small Structure
The organizational structure of a small business is generally simpler than that of a larger corporation. In the smallest sense, a small business could simply be an owner-operator or an owner-manager-employee setup. Other small businesses are a bit larger with a few hundred employees working together in a building or area. A small organizational structure can improve communication among employees at each level or in different stores in a chain.
Limited Budget
A key constraint for small-scale businesses relative to larger companies is typically a more limited budget. With revenue ranging from a few thousand dollars to a few million, small companies must normally minimize fixed and variable costs of doing business and operate with extreme efficiency. Marketing budgets are limited so affordable media such as local radio and newspapers are commonly used to present advertising messages to customers.
Limited Suppliers
Small businesses also don't often have the massive network of suppliers common to large companies. The benefit in this is the ability to build trust and mutual goals with a few key suppliers. The drawback is limited bargaining power since your suppliers aren't competing as much to gain your business. Small businesses also face challenges in providing customers with enough variety and assortment at reasonable prices to attract them away from larger companies.
Believer in the Business
Small business owners believe in their businesses. Down to their very core, they take seriously what they sell to their customers. Without a sense of purpose and a belief in the value of your business, it is difficult for customers to see the value in your product or service. If they can't find a value, there's no reason for them to buy anything.
Planner
People who operate their own small company can connect their vision for the future and personal belief in the business to their ability to plan. They can evaluate their business at any time, take a snapshot of the market and determine the best short-term and long-term goals. Some goals that you set for your business may be personal, perhaps tied to your dreams, ambition or emotions, and other goals may be strategic, intended to help your company acquire a larger market share or revolutionize the way employees perform their work assignments.[1]
Collaborator and Leader
The ability to work with others is a hallmark of small business owners. In the start-up phase, owners must convince others that their idea will work and begin organizing resources to launch their idea. This includes convincing family and friends, employees, suppliers, partner businesses, investors and lenders. As a component of successful collaboration, owners rely on delegating to their employees to lead the business through periods of growth and maintenance of everyday operations. The strong bonds they form around their business benefit customers.
Creative
This is the key ingredient that is required at every stage of owning a business. Creativity helps you think of your idea in the beginning and then develop a business plan to launch it into the market. It is a trait that helps you look for new opportunities, including new products, services and business partnerships, once you're established. Creativity pushes you to look for better ways to do business. It is the same trait that you should seek in employees because creative individuals can suggest how to improve customer service.
Flexible
Small business owners are flexible in their approaches to different situations. The ways that they manage their financial resources and employees will affect their company's ability to respond to changes in the market. This includes being able to take action quickly when market conditions demand it, such as agreeing to buy out a competitor's inventory when he suddenly goes out of business.


Some Characteristics of Small Businesses
 “Management in a small business is independent in the real sense of the term. In most of the cases, the entrepreneur himself is the manager of all the aspects related to his business. ”[2]
·        A business is said to be a small one when it has small amount of investment involved and the value and quantity of its output is also not big. Additionally, such a business employs a small number of workforce, uses a limited quantity of raw materials and has less complexity involved in its operations.
·        Management in a small business is independent in the real sense of the term. In most of the cases, the entrepreneur himself is the manager of all the aspects related to his business. If he cannot arrange all the capital himself, he ropes in the services of a small group of local people for the realization of his endeavor.
·        This business has more of the qualities of a family as all the workers are well in contact with the owner and the scale of operations seldom involves other states or far-flung areas.
·        The owner is left with no option but to reinvest his profit back in is business in case he is desirous of expanding it. It’s because he has to run his livelihood as well as meet all the expenses of his business from the profit itself. The owner is not in a position to set up a unit that is not related to his main business.
·        A small business also cannot think of capturing the market even in the wildest of its dreams. However, a cartel of a large number of related small businesses may become a significant force to reckon with far and wide.

·        The marketing of a small business also has to be done with the help of scanty means and scarce input. Pamphlets in newspapers, strip ads in the local cable network and announcement via speaks atop mobile vans are the effective means of marketing for small businesses.
·        Sometimes, the owners of small businesses approach the local management and training institutes and take the help of students studying there for the promotion of their newly launched products (usually after some kind of small donation to the institute). The students sell their products moving door to door and gain points in return that play a role in the final assessment of their course.

Small Business Management :
Project management is the process and activity of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result  with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies.
The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary —and more ambitious— challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives.
There are a number of approaches to managing project activities including lean, iterative, incremental, and phased approaches.
Regardless of the methodology employed, careful consideration must be given to the overall project objectives, timeline, and cost, as well as the roles and responsibilities of all participants and stakeholders.
The traditional approach
A traditional phased approach identifies a sequence of steps to be completed. In the "traditional approach", five developmental components of a project can be distinguished (four stages plus control):
·        initiation
·        planning and design
·        execution and construction
·        monitoring and controlling systems
·        completion


Not all projects will have every stage, as projects can be terminated before they reach completion. Some projects do not follow a structured planning and/or monitoring process. And some projects will go through steps 2, 3 and 4 multiple times.

Many industries use variations of these project stages. For example, when working on a brick-and-mortar design and construction, projects will typically progress through stages like pre-planning, conceptual design, schematic design, design development, construction drawings (or contract documents), and construction administration. In software development, this approach is often known as the waterfall model, i.e., one series of tasks after another in linear sequence. In software development many organizations have adapted the Rational Unified Process (RUP) to fit this methodology, although RUP does not require or explicitly recommend this practice. Waterfall development works well for small, well defined projects, but often fails in larger projects of undefined and ambiguous nature. The Cone of Uncertainty explains some of this as the planning made on the initial phase of the project suffers from a high degree of uncertainty. This becomes especially true as software development is often the realization of a new or novel product. In projects where requirements have not been finalized and can change, requirements management is used to develop an accurate and complete definition of the behavior of software that can serve as the basis for software development. While the terms may differ from industry to industry, the actual stages typically follow common steps to problem solving—"defining the problem, weighing options, choosing a path, implementation and evaluation."

How to manage small business :
Monitoring and follow-up under accounting books and the use of simplified accounting program:
You need all installations in different shapes or sizes to the accounting system, helps owners to get accounting information during the period of activity established merchant can not rely on his mind in the retrieval and knowledge of all operations carried out by The key ingredient of the accounting system in the (documents, books, records, lists and reports) is considered the starting point in the flow of information and clarification of data on business operations of the facility and the reality of documents recording is in the books and records to prove that all the processes are then dump the information in the lists and reports based on the financial accounting system for the facility to explain the result of the business for a certain period.[3]
To maintain the high quality:
The intensity of competition on the item requires a lot of attention to the product or service provided, it is the basic elements of marketing to be Item provided high-quality match with the requirements of the consumer in terms of shape, color and design, durability and shelf life, packaging and gain consumer confidence and ensure continuity in the market it is necessary to maintain the quality always thinking in the improvement and excellence.
Maintaining a competitive price:
 Price is the real value of the product and which assesses the amount of consumer needs and purchasing power, and therefore must be the product price competitor to achieve a reasonable profit margin and should be pricing process after studying the cost of the product and the level of demand and the characteristics of the consumer and competition.
Continuous development of relevant:
The employer responsibility and face the problems and the determination and perseverance, and work long hours without complaint, and upon learning the skills of dealing with others and build good relations with them, as well as the acquisition of management skills such as planning, organization and command and control over the work, which helps employers dramatically in the management of work and overcome the obstacles they are facing .
Develop and improve the place and the work environment:
Stop development and growth of small-scale project on the ability of the owner to choose the right place for the project and determine the competitive position in the market and the distribution of goods and sales and consumer and market share in the sector and ease of arrival to the consumer and the number of employees and hard work to improve the products or services commensurate with the changes and economic conditions in terms of supply and demand , and benefit from the experiences of others - especially competitors - and touch the needs and tastes of consumers and the motives for the purchase and the rate of use of the goods.
Interest in the development of workers:
The development of competencies of employees of the most important ingredients for success, the existence of worker unqualified or untrained reduce the quality of work and lack of attention to the development and safety of workers at the facility leads to lower motivation they have, and this adversely affects customer satisfaction and consumers and then in sales for that employer must concern put his staff to develop their abilities and maintain their safety and building strong relationships with them, and this helps to raise the work efficiency and increase customer satisfaction, thereby increasing sales.
Establish good relationships with suppliers and distributors:
I always carry the relationship between the project owner small suppliers and distributors a personal Whenever relationship entrepreneur suppliers strong whenever helped him get the facilities of them and the greater its relationship to distributors increased their loyalty to him and his products and this leads to increased sales and then the growth and development of its business.
Work analyzing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities before the beginning of each fiscal year:
His small-scale project is primarily responsible for the analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities for its business, and can use the offices of consulting (financial, administrative and marketing) to ensure the success of the project through the annual evaluation of the proper conduct of the project and must study and analysis of administrative and operational costs and marketing, and the costs of financing and capital, salaries and wages, account depreciation on machinery and buildings, furniture, insurance costs and the cost of maintenance materials, and the cost of technical services workers and the driving forces in number and small tools and fluctuations in the volume of sales and estimating the size of the profits in terms of increase or decrease.
Issuing discretionary budget before the beginning of each fiscal year:
The owner of the project to adopt the budget estimate shows the cost of each activity requires financial expenses to be implemented during the fiscal year of the project trade and the expansion of the project and its development must walk under the implementation of all approved activities to ensure the plan is the implementation of the operational plan for the project and contain the budget on the possibilities and balances project finance and cash available during the year The new.
Issuing entity's own financial statements at the end of each fiscal year:
 Considered the consolidated financial index, which we define in which the results achieved by the project of the profit or loss in a given period and the most important of these lists: List as a result of the business and show where all revenues and all expenditures - statement of financial position (balance) and show the assets, liabilities and rights of the owners of property in addition to the reports contain some financial indicators and ratios such as the rate of return on investment and the rate of turnover of goods and the evolution of the volume of sales .


Sources :
1.      http://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/characteristics-small-business-owners-1226.html
2.      http://dailyojo.com/articles/some-characteristics-of-small-businesses.html
3.      http://www.sba.gov/category/navigation-structure/starting-managing-business










[1] - http://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/characteristics-small-business-owners-1226.html
[2] - http://dailyojo.com/articles/some-characteristics-of-small-businesses.html
[3] - http://www.sba.gov/category/navigation-structure/starting-managing-business

التعليقات



إذا أعجبك محتوى مدونتنا نتمنى البقاء على تواصل دائم ، فقط قم بإدخال بريدك الإلكتروني للإشتراك في بريد المدونة السريع ليصلك جديد المدونة أولاً بأول ، كما يمكنك إرسال رساله بالضغط على الزر المجاور ...

إتصل بنا

مرات مشاهدة الصفحة

جميع الحقوق محفوظة

النجباء

2016